Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said,
“The best month for observing Saum (fasting) next after Ramadan is the month of Allah, the Muharram; and the best Salat (prayer) next after the prescribed Salat is Salat at night (Tahajjud prayers).”
Source: From Riyad-us-Saliheen (Chapter 225) : Dar-us-Salam English Publication
Abu Sa’eed al Khudri (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as saying:
Every servant of Allah who observes fast for a day in the way of Allah, Allah would remove, because of this day, his face farther from the Fire (of Hell) to the extent of seventy years’ distance.
Narrated ‘abdu ALlaah ibn ‘Umar (رَضِيَ الله عَنْهُمَا) that the messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى للَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said:
“He who prays ad-Doha, fasts three days every month and does not abandon Witr neither travelling nor at residence, will have the reward of a martyr written for him”
[atTabarani in Muyamma’ azZawa’ed (241/2), declared saheeh by sheikh al-Albani (rahimahu Allaah) in sahih at-Targhib wa Taarhib, no. 595]
Note: ad-Doha starts when the sun raises the length of a spear (approximately 10 to 20 minutes after sunrise) and ends about 15 to 30 minutes before the adhan for duhr, it is prayed in pairs of rakats and can consist of at least two, to as many rakat as you would like beyond that. To read this information (regarding ad-Doha) directly from sheikh Bin Baz rahimahu Allaah please visit: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/mat/15443
Source: Benefit shared by brother AbduLlah alMeksiki via Yahoo groups
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
My friend (the Messenger of Allah) (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) directed me to observe fast for three days in every month, to perform two Rak`ah (optional) Duha prayer at forenoon and to perform the Witr prayer before going to bed.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
On the authority of Abu Hurrairah (radiallaahu ‘anhu): The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:
The one who looks after a widow or a poor person is like a Mujaahid (fighter) who fights for Allaah’s cause, or like him who performs prayers all the night and fasts all the day.
[Sahih Bukhaaree; The Book of Supporting the Family – Volume 7, Book 64, Number 265]
[Translator: M. Muhsin Khan]
The Virtues of Fasting ‘Ashura (10th of Muharram)
The Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
“For fasting the day of ‘Ashura, I hope that Allah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” [Reported by Muslim, 1976]
Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said:
“I never saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of ‘Ashura, and this month, meaning Ramadhan.” [Reported by al-Bukhari, 1867]
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, said:
“When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, fasted on ‘Ashura and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said:
‘If I live to see the next year, insha’Allah, we will fast on the ninth day too.’
But it so happened that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, passed away before the next year came.” [Reported by Muslim, 1916]
Aboo Dawood (rahimahullaah) reported (no. 345) from Aws ibn Aws ath-Thaqafee (radiallaahu ‘anhu): I heard Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say:
“Whoever washes his head on the day of Jumu’ah, and takes a bath and arrives in time, and he walks and he does not ride, and he draws close to the imaam, and he listens and he does not speak. Then for every step which he takes, there will be for him the reward of a year: the reward of fasting it and standing in Prayer.”
Shaikh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) said this hadeeth is (saheeh) authentic.
Further Reading :
‘Arafah on Saturday 5ht November 2011 (9 Dhul-Hijjah 1432)
The ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah is the day of ’Arafah, since it is on this day that the pilgrims gather at the mountain plain of ’Arafah, praying and supplicating to their Lord.
It is mustahabb (highly recommended) for those who are not pilgrims to fast on this day, since the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the day of ’Arafah, so he said, “It expiates the sins of the past year and the coming year.” 
Likewise, the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘There is no day on which Allaah frees people from the Fire more so than on the day of ’Arafah. He comes close to those (people standing on ’Arafah), and then He reveals before His Angels saying, ‘What are these people seeking.” 
Imaam at-Tirmidhee (d.275H) – rahimahullaah – said, “The People of Knowledge consider it recommended to fast on the day of ’Arafah, except for those at ’Arafah.” 
 Related by Muslim (no. 1162), from Aboo Qataadah (radiyallaahu ’anhu).
 Related by Muslim (no. 1348), from ’Aa‘ishah (radiyallaahu ’anhaa).
 Refer to Jaami’ut-Tirmidhee (3/377).
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلي الله عليه وسلم said :
“He who observes the fast of the month of Ramadhaan out of sincerity and hope for the reward from Allaah will have his past sins forgiven.”
Saheeh Al- Bukhaari (Arabic/English), vol. 3, # 125.